Funaria life cycle Class 11 Biology. Back to categories. Occurrence l The genus Funaria comprises species. In India, it is represented by 15 species. The following diagram gives one example of a bryophyte life cycle, that of the moss Funaria hygrometrica. click to enlarge · Print this diagram as. Funaria hygrometrica – life cycle. Gametophyte. Spores. Protonema. Sporophytes . See. SEP. A recently germinated spore with a rudimentary protonema. spore.

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General characteristics of mosses. Such type of lufe takes place in all the upper segments except the apical cell which develops into operculum. When archegonium reaches at maturity, the neck canal cells and venter canal cell disintegrate to form a mucilaginous mass. Each androcyte develops into a biflagellate antherozoid.

About 15 species of Funaria have been reported from India.

Life Cycle of Funaria: Sexual and Vegetative Life Cycle

It divides by a transverse wall forming an upper epibasal cell and lower hypo basal cell Fig. It differentiates at the apex of the female branch. After syngamy zygote develop into embryo holoblastic and exoscopic on gametophyte. From these two group of cells the further development takes place.

Its cells may undergo sub-divisions to form two cell layers thick spore mother cells which by meiosis form tetrad of spores. The outer wall is thick, smooth, brown and known as exosporium, while the inner wall is thin, hyaline and called endosporium. Rhizoidal branches function as anchoring and absorbing organs while chloronemal branches develop minute green buds behind the cross walls which develop into leafy gametophores.


Frequently, the gametophyte undergoes vegetative propagation to form a succession of the gametophyte generations before the sporophyte generation develops. The middle fertile theca, from centre to outside, consists of a sterile columella, surrounded by a barrel-shaped spore sac, a cylindrical air space with trabeculae, hypodermis and epidermis. The Bryophyta were divided in three groups, one of them being the True mosses, named as the Musci.

Leaves are sessile, ovate and green. The fertile region in capsule comprises archesporium lined by outer and inner spore sac. Many mosses can follow asexual propagation through fragmentation of the thallus and formation of specific, multicellular bodies, called gemmae. The uptake of water and nutrients can occur over the entire thallus. Water is essential for fertilization.

It is the terminal part of the sporophyte and is developed at the apex of the seta.

The spore caps have grooves see tunaria A ; after opening of the caps the spores are released within a few hours. Below the epidermis is spongy parenchyma.

Mosses (Overview)

These fragments grow into llfe protonemata which bear buds. The apex of fem ale shoot is called female receptacle from which cluster of archegonia arise intermixed with non- capitate paraphysis.

Rosette like perigonial leaves serve as splash cup from which rain drops dunaria antheroziods to some distance rain drops falling on the archegonial cluster situated at lower level.

They help in anchorage and absorption. There are umbrella-shaped gametangiophores that are either male called antheridiophores; phore means to carry or female called archegoniophores.

Life Cycle of Funaria: Sexual and Vegetative Life Cycle

Again the outer layer of these two layers divides anticlinally to form 32 cells. My presentations Profile Feedback Log out. Published by siddharth verma Modified about 1 year ago. The spores are dispersed by the wind and germinate to filamentous protonemata. Many antherozoids enter the archegonial neck because of lifee response but only one of them fuses with the egg to form the zygote.

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Small cell is called jacket initial Fig. These are perinnating structures developed on rhizoids. The sporophyte is semi-parasitic in nature, cyc,e mature sporophyte can be differentiated into three distinct parts—foot, seta and capsule. Each mature antheridium has a short talk and a dub-shaped jacketed body. It is dome shaped and consists four to five layers of cells. Magill Funaria clavellata Mitt. The oospore divides and redivides to form embryo.

Hornworts The Hornworts resemble the Liverworts, but they look more like real plantlets. It is present below the epidermis. On the return of favourable conditions gemmae germinate and form new plants. The female shoot arise from the base of the male shoot and called as archegonial branch or archegoniophore.

Funaria – Wikipedia

They have no vascular system. Download ppt “Life ,ife of funaria Oogamus. Each cell of the quadrant divides by anticlinal wall Fig. Younger part of the cortex contains chloroplasts but in the older part they are lacking.

Funaria beccarii Hampe Broth. The peristome consists of two rings of radially arranged peristomial teeth. Rhizoids arise from the base of the axis.

De dispersion of these spores can take days. It bears the capsule at its tip. Bartram Funaria husnotii Schimp.